Caroline of Brunswick, estranged wife of King George IV, died weeks after being refused entry to her husband’s coronation. She had become very popular, because of widespread hatred of the king, who had treated her pretty badly. When she died her funeral procession from Hammersmith turned into a riotous demo across London, erupting into fighting, and two working men, carpenter Richard Honey and George Francis, a bricklayer, were shot dead by soldiers in Hyde Park.
The daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain, Caroline was engaged to her first cousin, George, in 1794, and married the following year (despite the minor issue that Georgie Porgie was already secretly married to Maria Fitzherbert…)
George and Caroline separated shortly after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte of Wales, in 1796.
Prince George was an unpleasant character, fond of overdoing it on the drink and other luxuries, and like his father, would gradually lose his grip on reality. He hated his wife, and had vowed she would never be the queen.
By 1806, rumours spread that Caroline had taken lovers and had an illegitimate child. Whether or not George had anything to do with the rumours, they certainly served his interests … Meanwhile, the prince of course continued to shag widely, because standards for men and women were considered totally opposite, even for the royals. Caroline was ostracised by the establishment, which conversely continued to toady up to the repulsive George.
The controversy led to an investigation into Caroline’s private life, which concluded there was “no foundation” to the rumours, but a gleeful prince and government ensured Caroline’s access to her daughter was restricted anyway. She moved abroad to Italy in 1814, where rumours continued to gather; spies were said to have been sent to dog her steps.
George attempted to persuade Caroline to accept a divorce: she refused. Parallels have been drawn between this ‘royal scandal’ and the more recent royal divorce of Prince Charles and Diana; similarly in that case, public sympathy was drawn in very much on Diana’s side, though she had a much more canny sense of good PR in a totally different age…
It is worth reading Anna Clark’s excellent Queen Caroline and the Sexual Politics of Popular Culture in London, 1820, which gives a good summary of the varying motives for popular support of Caroline, especially among plebeian radicals and most particularly among women. There are fascinating contradictions in the spread of support for her cause. Caroline’s assertion of her ‘rights’ against the unpopular George helped gain her support both from men willing to see themselves as defenders of women against violent and abusive husbands, as well as from women on similar grounds, with the added element that her robust independence helped enable a wider participation of women in the public sphere. Caroline’s alleged affairs were even dismissed among plebeian radicals who supported libertinism and a woman’s freedom to assert her own sexual choice; but contrary-wise, the debauched life of the Prince allowed her to appear as a virtuous ‘wronged’ wife.
In 1820, George became king of the United Kingdom and Hanover with the death of his father. On 5 June 1820 Caroline, who had now been living abroad for six years, arrived unexpectedly in England to claim her right to be crowned queen. A furious George put pressure on the government, to introduce a ‘bill of pains and penalties’ into the House of Lords, to annul the royal marriage and deprive Caroline of her title.
The country had been through several years of radical agitation, clamour for reform and some abortive attempts at uprisings. The new king and the government were wildly unpopular, and many radicals and a large part of the population took any opportunity to attack what they saw as a corrupt hereditary monarchy and political class, who had brought in oppressive measures to stay in power and repress popular movements. Caroline’s grievance was suddenly seized on, and she received a wave of public sympathy, being perceived as a ‘wronged woman’ bravely struggling to uphold her rights against a callous political establishment. Whig politicians gave Caroline their backing; prominent Radicals such as the journalist William Cobbett, MP Sir Francis Burdett and John Cam Hobhouse took up her cause, and addresses of support were forwarded to the queen from numerous meetings held all over the country. Radical papers and news sheets were printed in large numbers and distributed far and wide in support of her.
Whig lawyers, Henry Brougham and Thomas Denman defended Caroline during the proceedings on the bill of pains and penalties in the House of Lords. Ministers found that increasing numbers of usually reliable peers were deserting them and, in the division on the bill’s third reading, 9 November, their majority shrank to just nine. Lord Liverpool, recognising that there was no possibility of carrying the Bill through the Commons, abandoned the process, to the king’s rage.
Jubilant scenes in the country greeted the news of the bill’s demise: subsequent public gatherings, saw speeches linking the queen’s cause with the popular clamour for parliamentary reform…
In July 1821, on the orders of her husband, Caroline was barred from George IV’s Coronation, planned for the 29th April 1821. Caroline asked the Prime Minister what dress to wear for the ceremony and was informed that she would not be taking part in it.
However, Caroline arrived at the door of Westminster Abbey on the day demanding to be admitted. She shouted “The Queen…Open” and the pages opened the door. “I am the Queen of England,” she shouted and an official roared at the pages “Do your duty…shut the door” and the door was slammed in her face.
Since arriving back in London, Caroline lived at Brandenburgh House, Hammersmith. She died there, on 7 August 1821, having fallen ill shortly after her husband’s coronation. Rumours she had been poisoned may have been unfounded, but were inevitable, in the circumstances…
Caroline had requested that she be buried in her native Brunswick; the government arranged for the body to be conveyed by carriage to Harwich to be shipped to Germany. But they were worried about the possibility of a public demonstration of anger against the king and in support of the ‘wronged queen’, and drew out a route to avoid what they thought trouble spots.
They were right to anticipate trouble, but wrong to think they could avoid it.
On the day of the funeral procession, 14th August 1821, there was an altercation with the organisers before the executors would allow the Queen’s body to be removed.
Meanwhile crowds were gathering. The determination of the government was to shepherd the queen’s corpse quietly out of England without going through the City where crowds could gather and demonstrate support for her – equally, unruly elements were out to make sure the procession travelled through the capital.
“Before six o’clock a crowd assembled at Hyde Park Corner. The anxiety of the people as to the course the funeral procession [for Caroline of Brunswick] would take was here most strikingly displayed. The crowd were unwilling to depart from a place where there was a favourable chance of joining or viewing the procession; but there was the greatest agitation and alarm lest it should pass another way.
The procession reached Kensington at half past nine. It was after eleven that it moved on into Hyde Park, and an attempt was made to pass, but this failed, for the people, apprehensive that the hearse would not pass through the City, shut the gates.”
(Manchester Guardian, 18/7/1821)
Barricades were built. Before long the route “was blockaded… rendering it impassable. The whole procession therefore came to a halt, and a messenger was despatched to Lord Liverpool for orders.” Liverpool decided that the route was to proceed through Hyde Park.
“About twelve o’clock the procession entered the Park, and during its passage through it a scene of confusion and outrage ensued of which the annals of this or any other Christian country can present few parallels. Vast numbers of persons on foot and on horseback passed with great speed along Park Lane. Their object was suspected by the Guards to be to reach that gate before them, with the view of meeting the procession, and forcing it to turn back. To prevent this, the Guards galloped through the Park to gain Cumberland Gate before them. The procession moved at a very quick pace through the Park. Suddenly, it halted, and it was understood that the people had closed the gates. It became necessary to force a way for the procession through whatever impediments might present themselves. The people were equally bent on turning the procession, and forcing it into the route of the city. Here a contest arose, and here, we deeply regret to say, blood was shed!”
(Manchester Guardian, 18/7/1821)
The procession reached Cumberland Gate at the north-eastern edge of Hyde Park
“where the obstruction to their passing was renewed and the guards endeavouring to remove these obstacles and clear the way were assailed with bricks, paving stones and such other missiles.
Some stones and mud were thrown at the military, and a magistrate being present, the soldiers were sanctioned in firing their pistols and carbines at the unarmed crowd. Screams of terror were heard in every direction. The number of shots fired was not less than forty or fifty. So completely did the soldiery appear at this period to have lost the good temper and forbearance they previously evinced, that they fired shots in the direction in which the procession was moving. Immediately upon the cessation of the firing, the latter part of the procession joined the rest of the funeral train. The rain, which had lately abated, again poured in torrents, as the procession advanced.”
(Manchester Guardian, 18/7/1821)
Here is part of a contemporary account of the start of the procession and the shooting at Cumberland Gate:
“The hamlet of Hammersmith, as the procession passed up the Broadway, presented a striking spectacle. The windows of the houses were filled in every part, chiefly with females, all in the deepest mourning; and a great number of men had climbed upon the roofs, and even upon the chimneys, so great was the anxiety to obtain a view of the procession. On each side of the road vehicles of every kind were drawn up, and seats or standing places on them were purchased
eagerly, at from 1s. to 3s. The owners of some of the carts and waggons had provided canopies of carpet or sail-cloth, which protected the occupiers of seats from the rain, and these men made a very considerable sum by their speculation. The space between these carriages and the houses was completely filled with spectators on foot, many of whom were without umbrellas, or any other than their ordinary covering ; but the heavy rain which continued to fall the whole of the morning did not dismay them. We saw hundreds of women, of all ages, standing patiently beneath the pelting shower, and bearing, without a murmur, the rude assault to which they were every minute subject, from the want of common tenderness on the part of the men. wept aloud as they took their last view of the hearse. The fair inhabitants of the hamlet evinced the strongest sensibility upon this melancholy occasion. They were seen at their windows gazing with tearful eyes upon the solemn spectacle, and many were heard to sob aloud, apparently in the greatest agony of grief. When the head of the procession reached the Broadway, the spectators were gratified with one of the most interesting sights, we believe, ever witnessed. The children, male and female, of Latimer’s Charity-school, issued from the school-house, in their best dresses, wearing crape upon their hats, and each bearing a small white basket filled with choice flowers. The sides of the basket were covered with crape. The little ones having ranged themselves at the head of the cavalcade in proper order, two and two, they proceeded on, strewing their flowers in the road as they walked along. The extremely neat dresses of the children, with their simple but earnest manner of performing this ceremony, excited the highest admiration and the deepest sympathy. It imparted a degree of painful interest to the scene, that will long be remembered by those who had an opportunity of beholding it. These children had been furnished with their baskets on Monday, and they went round on that day to the principal inhabitants of the hamlet, and begged from each a supply, of the best flowers in the garden. The children walked bareheaded, and bore the heavy rain with great cheerfulness. When their stock of flowers was exhausted, they walked out of the line, and stood at the side of the road until the procession had passed them, when they returned to the school-house.
ASSEMBLAGE IN HYDE PARK.
While the arrangements for the procession · were forming at Brandenburgh House, an immense crowd of horsemen and pedestrians was collected at Hyde-park-corner, which increased rapidly from five until eight o’clock, by which time it was prodigious, notwithstanding the deluge of rain which continued without intermission the whole morning, as if the very Heavens were weeping in sympathy with the hearts of the English people. By half-past six a Upon arriving at the turnpike, the populace insisted that the horsemen should pay no toll, it being, we believe, a popular error that funerals pay no toll under any circumstances. The gentlemen themselves seemed willing to pay, but hesitating in consequence of the calls from the crowd, the keeper closed the gate against them, upon which the populace instantly tore it from its hinges, and dashed it on one side; nor did they suffer any horseman who passed afterwards to pay. Shortly after this, a doubt seemed to prevail as to which route the procession would adopt, and the anxiety upon this subject soon became extremely intense. Every coach, every horseman, or even foot-passenger, who came from the direction of Hammersmith, was questioned with the greatest eagerness as to whether he knew any thing of the matter : and each succeeding person interrogated gave a different answer from the preceding one.
At about a quarter past eight, it was announced that the procession was moving along the road at the other extremity of the Park, and instantly the whole crowd streamed off with all the speed in their power to the Oxford-street gate. Here they found that the same uncertainty prevailed as at Hyde-park-corner; and, after having waited with great patience for half an hour, another report was circulated that the procession was going along by Knightsbridge. Immediately the whole Park was covered with a moving cloud of umbrellas, the people having made their way over all parts of the wall along the Edgeware-road, and directing their course back again to Hyde-park-corner. Still the route remained unascertained, and it was now understood that not even any of the persons at Hammersmith, except the undertaker, who was in the confidence of His Majesty’s Government, were informed of the intended line it was to take. This circumstance appeared to excite a general murmur of indignation. Multitudes proceeded on to Hammersmith, as the more certain way of avoiding the frustration of their purpose. But the greater number appeared to conclude, from the stationary the arrival of the procession, that it would certainly pass that way. However, once more (in consequence of the arrival of a horseman with the intelligence,) it was understood that the procession was about to pass the other way; and again the immense multitude rolled back the whole length of Hyde-park to the Edgeware-road, and again disappointment alone awaited them. The angry feeling excited against the authors of this irritating suspense became considerably enhanced by a suggestion, that the different horsemen who had given the false intelligence at various times, were persons expressly employed to deceive the people with unfounded reports, and thereby call off their attention from the direction in which the procession was to move. At this period the whole length of the Edgeware-road was thronged to excess as far as we could see; and vast numbers made their way to the Paddington-road, under the impression that that was the destined route. A long line of carriages also blocked up each of the various roads through which there was any chance of the procession passing. It now approached to eleven o’clock, and nothing but feelings of the deepest, the most heart-rooted affection and grief, could account for the extraordinary patience and self-devotion with which this immense concourse of persons, male and female, endured unintermitting fatigue, wet, and hunger, for a space of six hours; and still, although the water streamed in torrents from their drenched limbs-although they were hardly able to stand, from incessant running in every direction during the whole morning, and although almost fainting from exhaustion and want of food, they maintained an unshaken resolution to undergo every possible extremity of suffering from hardship or privation, rather than lose the opportunity of uttering a parting blessing on the cold remains of their lamented Queen. At length the arrival of one or two horsemen from Hammersmith, known not to be in the service of Government, who informed the anxious inquirers that surrounded them, that was at length announced in reality.
ROUTE FROM HAMMERSMITH TO HYDE-PARK-CORNER.
The procession moved on, at a slow pace, through the immense crowds that lined each side of the road. The order was not interrupted till its arrival at Kensington church. The constables and police officers, who, by that time, headed the procession, endeavoured to turn it out of the direct road leading to Picadilly, by guiding it along Church-street, which is by Kensington church; and thus to convey Her Majesty’s remains into the Bayswater-road, following the route previously marked by Mr. Bailey. This was promptly and loudly resisted. The people cried out “Shame! Shame !—Through the City! Through the City !” but finding that exclamations would avail but little, they resisted with personal force. A stout scuffle ensued; and as no military had yet arrived, the populace triumphed. This brought the procession to a stand-still. A communication of what had passed was made to superior powers lower down in the procession; and while this was taking place, the people, assembled in Church-street, set to work with an alacrity and success that were truly surprising, to render ineffectual an attempt to pass that way, by blocking up and cutting up the street ! Waggons, carts, &c. were brought and placed across the street; the linch-pins were taken out, and some of the wheels were taken off; and all the horses were removed. Higher up the stones were removed; trenches were dug in the roadway; even the water-pipes were opened. Crowbars and pokers were at work, and the workmen were cheered with cans of porter and with the applause of the multitude. A stoppage of as impassable a nature was thus created, in less than half an hour, as ever was raised by a retreating army to check the pursuit of an enemy. A waggon, Foot Guards, was seized and placed in Church-street. The Serjeant who commanded the party immediately represented to
Sir Robert Wilson the great inconvenience the delay would occasion him and his party, as they had a long march before them. Sir Robert Wilson immediately addressed the populace, and pointed out to them that the delay would be of serious inconvenience to the soldiers. The short speech of Sir Robert was received with great good humour; the baggage waggon was instantly released, and suffered to proceed on its journey, but another waggon was instantly placed in the same situation. While these labours were going on, a soldier was forwarded to town, with a despatch to Lord Liverpool for orders. In the mean time the whole procession remained stationary; and, by a singular coincidence, Her Majesty’s remains with the hearse stopped directly opposite to Mr. Cobbett’s house. That gentleman had the whole front of his house covered with black cloth. The appearance was singular, and the attention was respectful. As Mr. Bailey, the conductor of the procession, would not take upon himself the responsibility of moving in any other route previously marked by Mr. Bailey. This was promptly and loudly resisted. The people cried out “Shame! Shame !—Through the City! Through the City !” but finding that exclamations would avail but little, they resisted with personal force. A stout scuffle ensued; and as no military had yet arrived, the populace triumphed. This brought the procession to a stand-still. A communication of what had passed was made to superior powers lower down in the procession; and while this was taking place, the people, assembled in Church-street, set to work with an alacrity and success that were truly surprising, to render ineffectual an attempt to pass that way, by blocking up and cutting up the street ! Waggons, carts, &c. were brought and placed across the street; the linch-pins were taken out, and some of the wheels were taken off; and all the horses were removed. Higher up the stones were removed; trenches were dug in the roadway; even the water-pipes were opened. Crowbars and pokers were at work, and the workmen were cheered with cans of porter and with the applause of the multitude. A stoppage of as impassable a nature was thus created, in less than half an hour, as ever was raised by a retreating army to check the pursuit of an enemy. A waggon, Foot Guards, was seized and placed in Church-street. The Serjeant who commanded the party immediately represented to Sir Robert Wilson the great inconvenience the delay would occasion him and his party, as they had a long march before them. Sir Robert Wilson immediately addressed the populace, and pointed out to them that the delay would be of serious inconvenience to the soldiers. The short speech of Sir Robert was received with great good humour; the baggage waggon was instantly released, and suffered to proceed on its journey, but another waggon was instantly placed in the same situation. While these labours were going on, a soldier was forwarded to town, with a despatch to Lord Liverpool for orders. In the mean time the whole procession remained stationary; and, by a singular coincidence, Her Majesty’s remains with the hearse stopped directly opposite to Mr. Cobbett’s house. That gentleman had the whole front of his house covered with black cloth. The appearance was singular, and the attention was respectful. As Mr. Bailey, the conductor of the procession, would not take upon himself the responsibility of moving in any other direction than that laid down in the written directions, the whole cavalcade halted until new instructions arrived. At half-past eleven, a troop of Life Guards appeared, coming from London. They were headed by Sir R. Baker, the Chief Magistrate of Bow-street, mounted on an officer’s horse; and on each side of him was a military officer. Sir Robert and the officers having reconnoitred the end of Church-street, and found it impossible to remove the obstruction raised there, yielded to necessity, and gave orders for the procession to move on in a direct line, which was complied with, amidst the stunning huzzas of the multitude, who could not restrain their joy in having thus defeated the plan to carry off Her Majesty’s remains without their even entering London.
Their exultation, however, was doomed to speedy interruption. As soon as the Procession arrived at Hyde-Park gate, by Kensington Barracks, Sir Robert Baker, with some of the soldiers, entered it, with the view of leading the procession. instantly rushed into the opening, seized the gates, dragged the keeper and his helper forward, and closed them. This exasperated the Serjeant of the troops inside, who cried out, “ I’ll chop your hands off if you do not let go the gates.” The gates were again drawn back, and again closed by the people. Here one of the soldiers outside, putting spurs to his horse, Ons dashed up to the gate, when a person amongst them immediately held a great stick over him, crying out, “ Let our lives be lost before we let her pass this way.” Here the cry of “Murder” was vociferated, and a voice exclaimed, « Sir Robert Baker, remember you have not read the Riot Act.” Again a soldier from the roadside of the gate rode up to cut those hanging on to the gate, when one of the committee-men rode up between them and interposed. The cry was now, “ Horsemen ! horsemen! stand in the gate.” Olive only attempting it, whose horse was frightened, he could not get him forward. Several persons now got up to the gate, and though the soldiers were not three yards from it, several large stones were thrown at the military, one of which struck a soldier on the breast; and the cry of “Murder!” still continuing, Sir Robert Baker said, “ Open the gate, and we will go on.” The gate was opened, Sir Robert Baker came out, and headed the procession, and it proceeded on towards Hyde-Park-corner, the people crying out, “ The City! the City! Nothing but the City! Fly to Hyde-Park-corner ; block up, block up; every man in the breach.” The people now began to fly towards Hyde-Park-corner, when they reached the gates they were closed, and the military were stationed close to the gates inside the park. The gates were soon opened sufficiently for them to come out one by one; they were then closed again, and the military rode through the crowd to Park-lane, with their horsepistols in their hands.
After the commencement of the procession had passed Hyde-Park corner, and entered Piccadilly, fresh interruption took place. Considerable parties of Benefit Societies, of different trades, &c. who had carried Addresses to the Queen, appeared at this point with their banners and solemn music, prepared to join the procession. They occasioned some delay. Next it was found that Park-lane, the then contemplated route, had been stopped up almost as effectually as Church-lane at Kensington had been previously rendered impassable. The procession was thereby again brought to a complete stand-still, one that was rendered the more painful and alarming, owing to the increased numbers of the populace as well as of the horse soldiers. Several hundreds of Horse-guards and of Blues lined the streets, and the former certainly were not hailed in a very complimentary manner by portions of the vast and in many instances irritated multitude now assembled. Sir R. Baker knew not what to do; Officers of the Guards said they must obey their orders—they were positive-they were peremptory. The people looked to the Gentlemen on horseback, particularly to several distinguished Citizens, for them to advocate their cause at this critical juncture, with the Civil and Military Authorities. A more frightful state of things we never beheld ; we apprehended the most dreadful consequences-pistols, as well as swords, were drawn, the Guards displaying the most determined demeanour. Mr. Hurcombe, the Common Councilman, at this fearful moment, rode up to Sir R. Baker, and claimed his attention, if he had no right to ask that of the officers. He said, amongst other observations, “For Heaven’s sake! Sir Robert, let the procession proceed through the City. You see the people will not be satisfied without such course be pursued. If the contrary course be persisted in, the consequences, I fear, must be dreadful. There is every reason to apprehend that in such case blood will be spilled-lives will be lost. Therefore reflect well, and let the procession proceed through the City.”, * Sir R. Baker.-I know not what to do; the orders are positive-peremptory: I cannot change them. : Mr. Hurcombe.—You see that the lives of your fellow-citizens are placed in jeopardy-you see what is the state of the public mind; therefore, let me beseech you, take on yourself the responsibility of ordering the corpse to pass through the City. You will thereby doubtless save many lives; and if you do not pursue such course, and should lives be lost, who will be answerable for them after this warning ? Will not you be be the consequences what they might, he must fulfil his orders. He at the same time called on Sir R. Baker to aid him with the civil power in the execution of such duty.
Mr. Bailey now intimated a desire that the cavalcade should again attempt to pass up Park-lane into Oxford-street: but it was found impracticable. The head of the procession was then moved down the line of Piccadilly, and had proceeded nearly as far as Lord Coventry’s house, when it was met by a fresh reinforcement of horse-soldiers, by whom its further progress in that route was stopped. The conduct of the people during this stoppage, towards the military, was of a trying nature. After some hesitation, the leaders of the procession and the military commanders being apparently occupied in deliberating on the course to be taken, the whole made a retrograde movement towards deep shout, and mud and missiles flew at the soldiery from all directions. A party of dragoons were immediately sent round to Park-lane, with strict orders to remove the carts; in which service, we regret to say, many of them, as well as the crowd, were badly wounded, the former with stones, and the latter with the swords of the soldiery. One dragoon had his eye severely cut with a stone; and he would, no doubt, have killed the man with his sabre, had it not been for the humane interference of Sir R. Baker. The line of waggons, however, was so very compact, that it was found impossible to remove them, and this circumstance being communicated to the Magistrates, whose strict orders were, that it should take no other route than that prescribed by the officers of His Majesty’s Government, it was, after considerable stoppage, agreed to open Hyde-Park-gate, and orders were given to admit the whole cavalcade, and to exclude the crowd, which was at length effected after considerable resistance, and pelting on the part of the latter.
HYDE-PARK.-FATAL CONFLICT BETWEEN THE MILITARY AND THE POPULACE.
At half-past twelve the whole of the funeral procession had entered the Park; and, in accompanying the funeral in the Park, turned up Park-lane, and pursued the direction of Oxford-street, at a rapid rate. No further interruption took place till the arrival of the procession at Cumberland-gate. Some of the more zealous of the populace finding their efforts to force a passage for the hearse in a direct route for Temple Bar frustrated at one point, now bethought themselves of bringing their favourite plan to bear by shutting Cumberland-gate against the military. They seized upon the iron gates at this point, and having closed them, collected in great force, and seemed resolved upon keeping possession to the last. Their object was, by obstructing the advance in this quarter, to force the procession back to Piccadilly, when, as Park-lane was blocked up, it was deemed that it would of necessity take the direction of St. James’s-street. The crowd grew more dense every moment around the gate, and in every avenue leading towards that quarter, a determined disposition became manifest to maintain their object by forcible resistance. The military, notwithstanding the great opposition they had to encounter, succeeded in carrying the gates without resorting to extreme measures. Indeed the forbearance displayed up to this period was highly praiseworthy. Having made clear the passage of the gates, the military gained Oxford-street, and were about to proceed according to the appointed route by the Edgeware-road. In this design they were rudely opposed by the populace, who, in the most daring manner, rushed upon the horses, and seizing the bridles, at a tempted to turn their heads down Oxford-street, their backs to Tyburn turnpike. The soldiers took no other means of repulsing this attack than by repressing the people as they advanced with the backs and sides of their sabres. An eye-witness of this part of the conflict, and particularly of the firing, states, that a strong party of Life Guards had been drawn across Oxford-street, from the top of Park-lane, to prevent the passage of the cavalcade in that direction; and the Officer commanding it was exceedingly active in the distribution of his orders to the men posted at the several points. Upon him an attack was first made by the crowd, his party. At this period Sir Robert Baker, having in vain endeavoured to open a passage through the mob, and to remove the impediments from the entrance to the Edgeware-road, read the Riot Act, and the military preparing to move, the populace began to retreat in all directions. About thirty yards of the iron railing on the parapet wall of Hyde-Park, between Cumberland-gate and Tyburn-turnpike, were torn down, and a way thus made for the passage of the multitude. The materials of the wall were immediately converted into ammunition by the crowd, and a party of the Life Guards having dismounted, advanced under the cover of a double line of mounted cavalry to force the barricade which had been thrown up across the road, and were furiously attacked by them. Orders were then given for the remainder of the party to charge the crowd, which they did, advancing rapidly upon them, and flourishing their swords right and left, striking chiefly with the flat or broad sides, but in many instances using the points and edge. Upon this some persons in the rear, presenting a dense and formidable mass, raised the cry of— “ The soldiers are cutting down the people,” which was immediately followed up by showers of brickbats, stones, and missiles of divers descriptions, which were hurled at the soldiers. The pressure of the crowd continued, and the shower of missiles was kept up at so brisk a rate, that the troops must have been forced from their ground had they not adopted the most decisive measures. Several were unhorsed by brickbats, and many suffered the most severe bruises, and, after bearing with the most exemplary patience and fortitude, these repeated assaults, the painful order to fire was given. We believe the first discharge of carbines was over the heads of the people, but not having the desired effect, it was found necessary to fire amongst the crowd, in consequence of which one person was killed ; another, George Francis, a bricklayer, mortally wounded; and several others şeverely. One of as the sufferers was named Richard Honey, a carpenter, residing to St. George’s Hospital. As the carbines were discharged at random, some gentlemen belonging to the parish of Hammersmith, and who occupied a coach next to that of Alderman Wood, narrowly escaped with their lives. A ball passed through one of the panels of the coach, and came out at the other side, but most providentially without any injury to those within it. Upon the wall of the City of Quebec public house, is the mark of a ball from a carbine, which penetrated between two bricks, within a few inches of the window, which was occupied by persons viewing the scene then passing in the street.
CUMBERLAND GATE AND THE NEW ROAD.
The procession now crossed the end of Oxford-street; and, leaving Tyburn-turnpike on the left, passed down the Edgeware-road towards Paddington. Almost immediately upon the cessation of the firing, the latter part of the procession, which during the continuance of the unfortunate affray between the military and the people had remained in the Park, proceeded rapidly forward, and joined the rest of the funeral train in the Edgeware-road. Upon leaving the Park, several mourning coaches, followed by a considerable number of horsemen, broke out of the line of the procession, and proceeding down Cumberland-street, turned off to the right, and, as far as we could learn, did not again take any share in the solemn ceremony in which they had previously borne a part. Whether this proceeding resulted from a feeling of disgust at the transaction which had just before taken place, we do not know; but it was evident that at this moment the minds of the individuals in the procession were much discomposed. The populace in Oxford-road and at Tyburn-gate appeared to be in the highest degree exasperated against the military, whom they loaded with the bitterest execrations. Some cried out “ They have shot a man, and killed him ;” others wished to draw the attention of the horsemen in the funeral train to the blood of the unfortunate sufferers in the conflict, which stained the ground in several places. It must be confessed that, under these circumstances, it required some little nerve in an individual to continue in a course in which it was not improbable he might again be liable to behold scenes of horror and danger similar to that of which he had recently been a spectator. However, the admirers of her late Majesty were not to be deterred, and the procession continued to proceed…”
(‘A Correct, Full, and Impartial Report, of the Trial of Her Majesty, Caroline, Queen Consort of Great Britain, Before the House of Peers, On the Bill of Pains and Penalties’, by Queen Caroline (consort of George IV, King of Great Britain), John Adolphus)
Along the rest of the route, the crowd “thronged the procession’s progress The Lord Mayor met them at Temple Bar and they passed in a very orderly manner through the City, cheered by the citizens.“
From there the procession proceeded to Colchester, where the coffin was placed in the church. Caroline’s Executors put upon the coffin an inscription with the words “much injured Queen”, which was removed, and replaced by a “Latin inscription prepared by the King’s orders. The executors clamoured, railed & protested but the body was put on board of the Glasgow frigate lying off Harwich on the 16th August.“
Two men died as a result of the shooting at Cumberland Gate:
“The number of persons who suffered in consequence of the dreadful attack made by the military on the multitude, near Cumberland-gate, has never been accurately known; but was fortunately much less than, under such circumstances, might have been expected. The only individual actually killed on the spot was Richard Honey, a carpenter. This unfortunate man was among the spectators at Cumberland-gate; and though there appears much conflicting testimony, respecting the circumstances of the attack, (as will be seen by our subsequent particulars of the Inquest,) the general evidence concurs in stating that he was perfectly inoffensive. The attack and firing, it appears, took place at the moment the people were endeavouring to turn the direction of the funeral down Oxford-street. George Francis, a bricklayer, was another unfortunate victim, who during this contest between the military and the people expired.” (A Correct, Full, and Impartial Report, of the Trial of Her Majesty, Caroline…)
The Jurors sitting in the inquests into the two deaths recorded verdicts of “wilful murder against a life guardsman unknown” for the death of Francis, and “Manslaughter against the officers and soldiers of the 1st Guards” for the death of Honey.
Despite this, no individual was ever specifically named as having been responsible or prosecuted for the deaths, which caused some anger. On the contrary, an army officer, Sir Robert Wilson, who had attended the funeral procession, was dismissed from the army for allegedly remonstrating with Life Guards officers while the shooting was taking place, and attempting afterwards to argue that they should be held responsible.
Richard Honey and George Francis were buried at St Paul’s Church, Hammersmith, on August 26th: thousands turned out for their funerals, which became another public demonstration, after which crowds attacked the Life Guards barracks in Kensington. (We will return to this in another post).
Brandenburgh House was pulled down after Caroline’s death.